ESL Activities and Games | Expressing possibility with may and might

Grammar | 60 - 90 minutes

An ESL lesson plan for teaching elementary level students (A2) how to express possibility in English. This lesson plan includes suggested board work, several activities, a game and a collection of specially selected ESL resources from around the web.

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Use of the board

The board work below shows one way to step through and introduce the target language for this lesson. Write each of the functional uses on the board and confirm that your students understand them. If possible, confirm in L1. Next, for each functional use elicit some example sentences. Use the colour-coded text to determine what you should attempt to elicit.


Hmm...I might...

For this speaking activity, the students have to use the target language to describe different nouns to the class.

One at a time, a student will come to the front of the class to describe an object to the room. Write the word on a piece of paper and show it to that student only. They will then have to explain what it is by talking about what they may or may not do with it. You can work from the following list or choose your own. Demo it a couple of times first. Also, make sure that students don't use their hands. Here are some examples appropriate to this level:

Mp3 player

What might have happened?

A fun group activity where students speculate about images drawn on the board.

Divide the board into quarters and draw one of the following in each square.

1. Girl angry with her boyfriend.
2. A person lying dead on the floor of a house.
3. An old woman running through the streets screaming 'yeeeeaaahhhhh!'
4. A house on fire as a guilty child looks on.

In groups of three or four, students consider what might have happened. After they've had some time to discuss amongst themselves, review each diagram with the entire class and have the groups volunteer their ideas.

Back in the day

The students have to imagine what life was like 1000 years ago.

You should be able to generate some entertaining discussion with this activity. In pairs, the students will compare and contrast life 1000 years ago with the current day.

How might they have done some of the simple things that we do now?

Try to elicit the following and add them to the board:

Had a shower
Cleaned their teeth
Went on a date
Listened to music
Shopped for food
Reported a crime

You can do this as a written or oral exercise.


Stopwatch challenge: Possible futures 

Students are given a topic about the future and have to talk for as long as possible using the modal verbs they have learned in this lesson. 

Start by dividing the class into two teams. On each turn, give a student a topic or question about the future. Next, time that student with a stopwatch while they try to talk for as long as possible. 

Award 5 bonus seconds for each correct usage of a modal verb and 20 bonus seconds for using all three (may, might and could). Stop the watch when they run out of steam. Some questions and topics to get you started: 

1. What would happen if we brought back dinosaurs? 
2. Do you think people will live on Mars one day? 
3. What would you do if you met your idol? 
4. What would you do if an asteroid hit the planet earth? 
5. What would you do if you could never use the internet again? 
6. What do you think the world will be like in 100 years? 
7. What would happen if we created AI? 
8. What would you do if you become the next President/Prime minister? 
9. If you could choose to come back as any animal, what would it be?

More A2 ESL lesson plans for elementary students

We hope that you were able to grab a few ideas from this lesson plan. Our suggested next lesson focuses Necessity. Be sure to check out our full list of elementary ESL lesson plans, A2 lower and A2 upper. For a broader range of language levels, you can browse the complete collection.

Are you an iOS or Android user? Then you should give our app a go! The TEFL Handbook app has over 100 lesson plans, 300+ ESL activities, over 100 ideas for games and has been designed for the ESL the classroom.

Printable versions of all resources are available to members. View a sample
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Significantly reduce your planning time and improve the way you present and teach English grammar.

A library of ESL lesson plans for teachers.